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Great Empire VideoFall of Great Empires - The Holy Roman Empire In the Southeast Asian mainland, the Hindu-Buddhist Khmer Empire was centered in the city of Angkor and flourished from the 9th to 13th centuries. This page was last edited on 2 November amazon.co.uk gutschein, at History of Macedonia ancient kingdom. Retrieved September 23, King-casino stopped at Thermopylae, where he was recognized as the leader of the Amphictyonic League before heading south to Corinth. Globalization and Violence, Vol. Bleicher, Theory, Culture, Society11, The European system owed its durability to its overseas outlet. The fall of casino langenfeld Roman Empire in the West is seen as one of the most pivotal points in all of human history. Today war Beste Spielothek in Barkviesen finden become an instrument of universal destruction, an instrument that destroys the victor and the vanquished … At worst, victor and loser would be undistinguishable under the leveling impact of Beste Spielothek in Godelhausen finden a catastrophe… At best, the destruction on one side would not be quite as great as on the other; the victor would be somewhat better off than the loser and would establish, with auf welchem programm kommt fußball aid of modern technology, his domination over the Beste Spielothek in Kolonie Keller finden. Alexander replied that since he was now king of Asia, it was wette hessen alone who decided territorial divisions. In the Caliphate clashed with the Tang China at Talas. When "his engineers pointed out to him that because of the height of the mound it would be impossible… this encouraged Alexander all the more to make the attempt".
By contrast, the Persian infantry was stationed behind its cavalry. This ensured that Alexander would not be outflanked, while his phalanx, armed with long pikes, had a considerable advantage over the Persians' scimitars and javelins.
Macedonian losses were negligible compared to those of the Persians. Alexander arranged a double phalanx, with the center advancing at an angle, parting when the chariots bore down and then reforming.
The advance was successful and broke Darius' center, causing the latter to flee once again. When faced with opponents who used unfamiliar fighting techniques, such as in Central Asia and India, Alexander adapted his forces to his opponents' style.
Thus, in Bactria and Sogdiana , Alexander successfully used his javelin throwers and archers to prevent outflanking movements, while massing his cavalry at the center.
Greek biographer Plutarch c. Whereas he was of a fair colour, as they say, and his fairness passed into ruddiness on his breast particularly, and in his face.
The semi-legendary Alexander Romance also suggests that Alexander exhibited heterochromia iridum: British historian Peter Green provided a description of Alexander's appearance, based on his review of statues and some ancient documents:.
Physically, Alexander was not prepossessing. Even by Macedonian standards he was very short, though stocky and tough. His beard was scanty, and he stood out against his hirsute Macedonian barons by going clean-shaven.
His neck was in some way twisted, so that he appeared to be gazing upward at an angle. His eyes one blue, one brown revealed a dewy, feminine quality.
He had a high complexion and a harsh voice. Ancient authors recorded that Alexander was so pleased with portraits of himself created by Lysippos that he forbade other sculptors from crafting his image.
Some of Alexander's strongest personality traits formed in response to his parents. His mother had huge ambitions, and encouraged him to believe it was his destiny to conquer the Persian Empire.
According to Plutarch, among Alexander's traits were a violent temper and rash, impulsive nature,  which undoubtedly contributed to some of his decisions.
He had a great desire for knowledge, a love for philosophy, and was an avid reader. Alexander was erudite and patronized both arts and sciences.
During his final years, and especially after the death of Hephaestion, Alexander began to exhibit signs of megalomania and paranoia. He appears to have believed himself a deity, or at least sought to deify himself.
Alexander married three times: He lost another child when Roxana miscarried at Babylon. Alexander also had a close relationship with his friend, general, and bodyguard Hephaestion , the son of a Macedonian noble.
Alexander's sexuality has been the subject of speculation and controversy. Aelian, however, writes of Alexander's visit to Troy where "Alexander garlanded the tomb of Achilles, and Hephaestion that of Patroclus , the latter hinting that he was a beloved of Alexander, in just the same way as Patroclus was of Achilles.
Green argues that there is little evidence in ancient sources that Alexander had much carnal interest in women; he did not produce an heir until the very end of his life.
Alexander accumulated a harem in the style of Persian kings, but he used it rather sparingly,  showing great self-control in "pleasures of the body".
Alexander's legacy extended beyond his military conquests. His campaigns greatly increased contacts and trade between East and West, and vast areas to the east were significantly exposed to Greek civilization and influence.
His chroniclers recorded valuable information about the areas through which he marched, while the Greeks themselves got a sense of belonging to a world beyond the Mediterranean.
Alexander's most immediate legacy was the introduction of Macedonian rule to huge new swathes of Asia.
The eastern borders of Alexander's empire began to collapse even during his lifetime. Taking advantage of this power vacuum, Chandragupta Maurya referred to in Greek sources as "Sandrokottos" , of relatively humble origin, took control of the Punjab , and with that power base proceeded to conquer the Nanda Empire.
Over the course of his conquests, Alexander founded some twenty cities that bore his name , most of them east of the Tigris.
At first, the cities must have been inhospitable, little more than defensive garrisons. Hellenization was coined by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen to denote the spread of Greek language, culture, and population into the former Persian empire after Alexander's conquest.
This culminated in his aspiration to homogenize the populations of Asia and Europe. However, his successors explicitly rejected such policies.
Nevertheless, Hellenization occurred throughout the region, accompanied by a distinct and opposite 'Orientalization' of the successor states.
The core of the Hellenistic culture promulgated by the conquests was essentially Athenian. The resulting syncretism known as Greco-Buddhism heavily influenced the development of Buddhism [ citation needed ] and created a culture of Greco-Buddhist art.
Some of the first and most influential figurative portrayals of the Buddha appeared at this time, perhaps modeled on Greek statues of Apollo in the Greco-Buddhist style.
Greek astronomical treatise and Paulisa Siddhanta texts depict the influence of Greek astronomical ideas on Indian astronomy.
Following the conquests of Alexander the Great in the east, Hellenistic influence on Indian art was far-ranging. In the area of architecture , a few examples of the Ionic order can be found as far as Pakistan with the Jandial temple near Taxila.
Several examples of capitals displaying Ionic influences can be seen as far as Patna , especially with the Pataliputra capital , dated to the 3rd century BC.
Alexander and his exploits were admired by many Romans, especially generals, who wanted to associate themselves with his achievements.
Pompey the Great adopted the epithet "Magnus" and even Alexander's anastole-type haircut, and searched the conquered lands of the east for Alexander's year-old cloak, which he then wore as a sign of greatness.
On the other hand, some Roman writers, particularly Republican figures, used Alexander as a cautionary tale of how autocratic tendencies can be kept in check by republican values.
Legendary accounts surround the life of Alexander the Great, many deriving from his own lifetime, probably encouraged by Alexander himself.
Writing shortly after Alexander's death, another participant, Onesicritus , invented a tryst between Alexander and Thalestris , queen of the mythical Amazons.
When Onesicritus read this passage to his patron, Alexander's general and later King Lysimachus reportedly quipped, "I wonder where I was at the time.
In the first centuries after Alexander's death, probably in Alexandria, a quantity of the legendary material coalesced into a text known as the Alexander Romance , later falsely ascribed to Callisthenes and therefore known as Pseudo-Callisthenes.
This text underwent numerous expansions and revisions throughout Antiquity and the Middle Ages ,  containing many dubious stories,  and was translated into numerous languages.
Alexander the Great's accomplishments and legacy have been depicted in many cultures. Alexander has figured in both high and popular culture beginning in his own era to the present day.
The Alexander Romance , in particular, has had a significant impact on portrayals of Alexander in later cultures, from Persian to medieval European to modern Greek.
Alexander features prominently in modern Greek folklore, more so than any other ancient figure.
Any other answer would cause the mermaid to turn into a raging Gorgon who would drag the ship to the bottom of the sea, all hands aboard.
In pre-Islamic Middle Persian Zoroastrian literature, Alexander is referred to by the epithet gujastak , meaning "accursed", and is accused of destroying temples and burning the sacred texts of Zoroastrianism.
The Syriac version of the Alexander Romance portrays him as an ideal Christian world conqueror who prayed to "the one true God".
According to Josephus , Alexander was shown the Book of Daniel when he entered Jerusalem, which described a mighty Greek king who would conquer the Persian Empire.
This is cited as a reason for sparing Jerusalem. In Hindi and Urdu , the name "Sikandar", derived from Persian, denotes a rising young talent.
Apart from a few inscriptions and fragments, texts written by people who actually knew Alexander or who gathered information from men who served with Alexander were all lost.
Their works are lost, but later works based on these original sources have survived. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the ancient king of Macedonia.
For other uses, see Alexander the Great disambiguation. History of Macedonia ancient kingdom. Government of Macedonia ancient kingdom.
Battle of the Persian Gate. Indian campaign of Alexander the Great. Death of Alexander the Great. Tomb of Alexander the Great.
Partition of Babylon and Diadochi. Personal relationships of Alexander the Great. List of cities founded by Alexander the Great. Alexander the Great in legend.
Alexander the Great in historiography. Ancestors of Alexander the Great 8. Amyntas III of Macedon 2. Philip II of Macedon Eurydice I of Macedon 1.
Alexander the Great Alcetas I of Epirus 6. Neoptolemus I of Epirus 3. History portal Greece portal Iran portal Egypt portal War portal.
The Macedonians were a Greek tribe. Historiography and scholarship agree that Alexander the Great was Greek. All three of these people had motive to have Philip murdered.
Diodorus also referred to an advance force already present in Asia, which Polyaenus , in his Stratagems of War 5. Mosul to Zirid, Volume 3. Primary sources Arrian Anabasis Alexandri The Campaigns of Alexander.
Quintus Curtius Rufus Retrieved 28 April Retrieved 14 November Retrieved 6 December Babbitt, Frank Cole, ed. On the Fortune of Alexander.
Retrieved 26 November John Selby Watson, translator. Secondary sources Barnett, C. Baynes, Norman G An Introduction to East Roman Civilization.
Moses in the Hieroglyphs. Retrieved 13 January Alexander the Great's Art of Strategy. The Reign of Alexander the Great.
University of California Press. Ethnic Nationalism in a Transnational World. Morality and custom in ancient Greece.
The Story of Civilization: The Life of Greece. Fermor, Patrick Leigh Travels in the Southern Peloponnese". New York Book Review: Mute dreams, blind owls, and dispersed knowledges: Persian poesis in the transnational circuitry.
Fox, Robin Lane The Search for Alexander. Gabriel, Richard A The Great Armies of Antiquity. Medieval Science, Technology, and Medicine: The Fall of Carthage.
Most, Glenn W; Settis, Salvatore, eds. Alexander the Great and the Hellenistic Age. Sources for Alexander the Great.
A History of Greece to BC. The language of the New Testament. Triumph and Tragedy in the Roman Republic. Holt, Frank Lee Culture, Identity and Ethnicity from Antiquity to Modernity.
Luniya, Bhanwarlal Nathuram Life and Culture in Ancient India: From the Earliest Times to AD. Outsiders in the Greek cities in the fourth century BC.
Retrieved 28 December Dictionary of Scientific Biography. The Empire of Brazil declared itself an empire after separating from the Portuguese Empire in France has twice transitioned from being called the French Republic to being called the French Empire while it retained an overseas empire.
Weaker states may seek annexation into the empire. The Unification of Germany as the empire accreted to the Prussian metropole was less a military conquest of the German states than their political divorce from the Austrian Empire , which formerly ruled loosely over the Holy Roman Empire.
Having convinced the other states of its military prowess, and having excluded the Austrians , Prussia dictated the terms of imperial membership.
Politically, it was typical for either a monarchy or an oligarchy , rooted in the original core territory of the empire, to continue to dominate.
Europeans began applying the designation of "empire" to non-European monarchies , such as the Qing Empire and the Mughal Empire , as well as the Maratha Empire , eventually leading to the looser denotations applicable to any political structure meeting the criteria of "imperium".
Some monarchies styled themselves as having greater size, scope, and power than the territorial, politico-military, and economic facts support.
As a consequence, some monarchs assumed the title of "emperor" or its corresponding translation, tsar , empereur , kaiser , shah etc. Empires were seen as an expanding power, administration, ideas and beliefs followed by cultural habits from place to place.
Empires tend to impose their culture on the subject states to strengthen the imperial structure. This can have notable effects that outlast the empire itself, both positive and negative.
Achaemenid Empire of Persia at its zenith. Maurya Empire of India at its greatest extent under Ashoka the Great. This imperial achievement was repeated by Hammurabi of Babylon in the 17th century BC.
Both surpassed in territory their contemporary Near Eastern empires. The Zhou Empire dissolved in BC into feudal multi-state system which lasted for five and a half centuries until the universal conquest of Qin in BC.
The Median Empire was the first empire within the territory of Persia. By the 6th century BC, after having allied with the Babylonians to defeat the Neo-Assyrian Empire , the Medes were able to establish their own empire, which was the largest of its day and lasted for about sixty years.
The Roman Empire under Trajan 98— This would be the peak of the empire's territorial extent. Han Empire of China in 2 CE. It is considered the first great empire in history or the first "world empire.
His Empire was succeeded by three Empires ruled by the Diadochi —the Seleucid , Ptolemaic , and Macedonian , which, despite being independent, are called the " Hellenistic Empire" by virtue of their similarities in culture and administration.
Meanwhile, in the western Mediterranean the Empires of Carthage and Rome began their rise. The Seleucid Empire broke apart and its former eastern part was absorbed by the Parthian Empire.
In India during the Axial Age appeared the Maurya Empire —a geographically extensive and powerful empire, ruled by the Mauryan dynasty from — BC. The empire was founded in BC by Chandragupta Maurya , who rapidly expanded his power westward across central and western India, taking advantage of the disruptions of local powers following the withdrawal by Alexander the Great.
By BC, the Maurya Empire had fully occupied northwestern India as well as defeating and conquering the satraps left by Alexander. In the reign of Asoka Buddhism spread to become the dominant religion in ancient India.
It has been estimated that the Maurya dynasty controlled an unprecedented one-third of the world's entire economy, was home to one-third of the world's population at the time an estimated 50 million out of million humans , contained the world's largest city of the time Pataliputra , estimated to be larger than Rome under Emperor Trajan and according to Megasthenes , the empire wielded a military of , infantry, 30, cavalry, and 9, war elephants.
Ying Zheng connected all the existing defense walls of northern China into what is known today Great Wall of China which marked the northern frontier of China.
The Romans were the first nation to invent and embody the concept of empire in their two mandates: Many languages, cultural values, religious institutions, political divisions, urban centers, and legal systems can trace their origins to the Roman Empire.
The Roman Empire governed and rested on exploitative actions. They took slaves and money from the peripheries to support the imperial center.
This term was legitimized and justified by writers like Cicero who wrote that only under Roman rule could the world flourish and prosper.
People started to build houses like Romans, eat the same food, wear the same clothes and engage in the same cruel games.
The Latin word imperium , referring to a magistrate's power to command, gradually assumed the meaning "The territory in which a magistrate can effectively enforce his commands", while the term " imperator " was originally an honorific meaning "commander".
The title was given to generals who were victorious in battle. Thus, an "empire" may include regions that are not legally within the territory of a state, but are under either direct or indirect control of that state, such as a colony , client state , or protectorate.
Although historians use the terms "Republican Period" and "Imperial Period" to identify the periods of Roman history before and after absolute power was assumed by Augustus , the Romans themselves continued to refer to their government as a republic, and during the Republican Period, the territories controlled by the republic were referred to as " Imperium Romanum ".
The emperor's actual legal power derived from holding the office of "consul", but he was traditionally honored with the titles of imperator commander and princeps first man or, chief.
Later, these terms came to have legal significance in their own right; an army calling their general " imperator " was a direct challenge to the authority of the current emperor.
The legal systems of France and its former colonies are strongly influenced by Roman law. The president, as "commander-in-chief" of the armed forces, reflects the ancient Roman titles imperator princeps.
In Western Asia , the term " Persian Empire " came to denote the Iranian imperial states established at different historical periods of pre— Islamic and post—Islamic Persia.
In East Asia , various Celestial empires arose periodically between periods of war, civil war, and foreign conquests.
The greatest of them was the Tang Empire AD The 7th century saw the emergence of the Islamic Empire , also referred to as the Islamic Caliphate.
By the beginning of the 8th century, the Umayyad Caliphate had become the largest empire in history, it would not be surpassed in size until the establishment of the Mongol Empire in the 13th century.
In the Caliphate clashed with the Tang China at Talas. By this time only these two Empires stretched between the Atlantic and the Pacific.
From the 11th century Moroccan empires began to appear, starting with the Almoravid Empire , dominating territories in both Europe as well as Sub-Saharan Africa.
The Ajuran Sultanate was a Somali empire in the medieval times that dominated the Indian Ocean trade.
They belonged to the Somali Muslim sultanate    that ruled over large parts of the Horn of Africa in the Middle Ages.
Through a strong centralized administration and an aggressive military stance towards invaders, the Ajuran Sultanate successfully resisted an Oromo invasion from the west and a Portuguese incursion from the east during the Gaal Madow and the Ajuran-Portuguese wars.
Trading routes dating from the ancient and early medieval periods of Somali maritime enterprise were strengthened or re-established, and foreign trade and commerce in the coastal provinces flourished with ships sailing to and coming from many kingdoms and empires in East Asia , South Asia , Southeast Asia , Europe , Middle East , North Africa and East Africa.
In the 7th century, Maritime Southeast Asia witnessed the rise of a Buddhist thallasocracy, the Srivijaya Empire , which thrived for years and was succeeded by the Hindu-Buddhist Majapahit Empire that ruled from the 13th to 15th centuries.
In the Southeast Asian mainland, the Hindu-Buddhist Khmer Empire was centered in the city of Angkor and flourished from the 9th to 13th centuries.
Following the demise of the Khmer Empire, the Siamese Empire flourished alongside the Burmese and Lan Chang Empires from the 13th through the 18th centuries.
In Eastern Europe, during the year of , the Byzantine Empire was forced to recognize the Imperial title of Bulgarian rulers who were called Tsars.
The Bulgarian Empire remained a major power in the Balkans until its fall in the late 14th century. The expansion of the Rashidun Empire.
Ajuran Sultanate in the 15th century. At the time, in the Medieval West , the title "empire" had a specific technical meaning that was exclusively applied to states that considered themselves the heirs and successors of the Roman Empire.
Yet, these states did not always fit the geographic, political, or military profiles of empires in the modern sense of the word.
To legitimise their imperium , these states directly claimed the title of Empire from Rome. The sacrum Romanum imperium Holy Roman Empire , which lasted from to , claimed to have exclusively comprehended Christian principalities, and was only nominally a discrete imperial state.
The Holy Roman Empire was not always centrally-governed, as it had neither core nor peripheral territories, and was not governed by a central, politico-military elite.
In , after the Fourth Crusade conquered Constantinople , the crusaders established a Latin Empire — in that city, while the defeated Byzantine Empire's descendants established two smaller, short-lived empires in Asia Minor: Constantinople was retaken in by the Byzantine successor state centered in Nicaea , re-establishing the Byzantine Empire until , by which time the Turkish - Muslim Ottoman Empire ca.
The Ottoman Empire was a successor of the Abbasid Empire and it was the most powerful empire to succeed the Abbasi empires at the time, as well as one of the most powerful empires in the world.
Likewise, with the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire in during the Napoleonic Wars — , the Austrian Empire — emerged reconstituted as the Empire of Austria—Hungary — , having "inherited" the imperium of Central and Western Europe from the losers of said wars.
In the thirteenth century, Genghis Khan expanded the Mongol Empire to be the largest contiguous empire in the world. However, within two generations, the empire was separated into four discrete khanates under Genghis Khan's grandsons.
The emergence of the Pax Mongolica had significantly eased trade and commerce across Asia. Both existed for several generations before the arrival of the Europeans.
Inca had gradually conquered the whole of the settled Andean world as far south as today Santiago in Chile.
In Oceania , the Tonga Empire was a lonely empire that existed from the Medieval to the Modern period. In the 15th century, Castile Spain landing in the so-called " New World " first, the Americas, and later Australia , along with Portuguese travels around the Cape of Good Hope and along the coast of Africa bordering the southeast Indian Ocean, proved ripe opportunities for the continent's Renaissance -era monarchies to establish colonial empires like those of the ancient Romans and Greeks.
In the Old World, colonial imperialism was attempted and established on the Canary Islands and Ireland.
These conquered lands and people became de jure subordinates of the empire, rather than de facto imperial territories and subjects.
Such subjugation often elicited "client-state" resentment that the empire unwisely ignored, leading to the collapse of the European colonial imperial system in the late 19th century and the early and midth century.
In the 18th century, the Spanish Empire was at its height because of the great mass of goods taken from conquered territory in the Americas nowadays Mexico , parts of the United States , the Caribbean , most of Central America, and South America and the Philippines.
Red shows self-governing North American British colonies and pink shows claimed and largely indirectly controlled territories in The Ottoman Empire at its greatest extent.
The map includes all Spanish territories, but only territories Portugal had during the Iberian Union. The Russian Empire in became the second largest contiguous empire to have ever existed.
The Russian Federation is currently the largest state on the planet. In , the British Empire was the largest empire in history.
The evolution of the French Empire in the 18th to the 20th century. The 19th to 20th century Japanese Empire at its maximum extent, Premier Empire , Second French Empire , and French colonial empire each attempted establishing a western imperial hegemony centered in France.
The Ashanti or Asante were a powerful, militaristic and highly disciplined people in West Africa. Their military power, which came from effective strategy and an early adoption of European firearms , created an empire that stretched from central Akanland in modern-day Ghana to present day Benin and Ivory Coast , bordered by the Dagomba kingdom to the north and Dahomey to the east.
Due to the empire's military prowess, sophisticated hierarchy, social stratification and culture, the Ashanti empire had one of the largest historiographies of any indigenous Sub-Saharan African political entity.
The Sikh Empire — was established in the Punjab region of India. The empire collapsed when its founder, Ranjit Singh, died and its army fell to the British.
During the same period, the Maratha Empire also known as the Maratha Confederacy was a Hindu state located in present-day India.
It existed from to , and at its peak, the empire's territories covered much of Southern Asia. The empire was founded and consolidated by Shivaji.
After the death of Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb, it expanded greatly under the rule of the Peshwas. In , the Maratha army lost the Third Battle of Panipat, which halted the expansion of the empire.
Later, the empire was divided into a confederacy of states which, in , were lost to the British during the Anglo-Maratha wars.
The Empire of Brazil was the only South American modern monarchy, established by the heir of the Portuguese Empire as an independent nation eventually became an emerging international power.
The new country was huge but sparsely populated and ethnically diverse. The British established their first empire — in North America by colonising lands that made up British America , including parts of Canada , the Caribbean and the Thirteen Colonies.
In , the Continental Congress of the Thirteen Colonies declared itself independent from the British Empire, thus beginning the American Revolution.
Britain turned towards Asia, the Pacific, and later Africa, with subsequent exploration leading to the rise of the Second British Empire — , which was followed by the Industrial Revolution and Britain's Imperial Century — It became the largest empire in world history, encompassing one quarter of the world's land area and one fifth of its population.
The term is most commonly used to describe the U. Despite these systematic differences, the political objectives and strategies of the United States government have been quite similar to those of previous empires.
Regardless of the supposed motivation for this constant expansion, all of these land acquisitions were carried out by imperialistic means.
This was done by financial means in some cases, and by military force in others. However, some scholars still consider U.
In time, an empire may change from one political entity to another. For example, the Holy Roman Empire, a German re-constitution of the Roman Empire , metamorphosed into various political structures i.
The Roman Empire, perennially reborn, also lived on as the Byzantine Empire Eastern Roman Empire - temporarily splitting into the Latin Empire , the Empire of Nicaea and the Empire of Trebizond before its remaining territory and centre became part of the Ottoman Empire.
After the Empire of Japan retained its Emperor but lost its colonial possessions and became the State of Japan.
An autocratic empire can become a republic e. The dissolution of the Austro—Hungarian Empire after provides an example of a multi-ethnic superstate broken into constituent nation-oriented states: After the Second World War — , the deconstruction of colonial empires quickened and became commonly known as decolonisation.
The British Empire evolved into a loose, multinational Commonwealth of Nations , while the French colonial empire metamorphosed to a Francophone commonwealth.
The same process happened to the Portuguese Empire , which evolved into a Lusophone commowealth , and to the former territories of the extinct Spanish Empire , which alongside the Lusophone countries of Portugal and Brazil , created a Ibero-American commowealth.
The British gave Hong Kong back to China in after years of rule. The Portuguese territory of Macau reverted to China in Macau and Hong Kong did not become part of the provincial structure of China; they have autonomous systems of government as Special Administrative Regions of the People's Republic of China.
Fourteen British Overseas Territories remain under British sovereignty. In Eliot A. Cohen summarized the contemporary transition from empire: The fall of the Roman Empire in the West is seen as one of the most pivotal points in all of human history.
This event traditionally marks the transition from classical civilization to the birth of Europe. There is still a debate over the cause of the fall of one of the largest empires in the history.
Piganiol argues that the Roman Empire under its authority can be described as "a period of terror",  holding its imperial system accountable for its failure.
Another theory blames the rise of Christianity as the cause, arguing that the spread of certain Christian ideals caused internal weakness of the military and state.
At the same time the Huns, a nomadic warrior people from the steppes of Asia, are also putting extreme pressure on the German tribes outside of the Roman frontier.
The German tribes really had no other choice, geographically, but to move into Roman territory. At this point, without increased funding, the Roman army could no longer effectively defend its borders against major waves of Germanic tribes.
This inability is illustrated by the crushing defeat at Adrianople in C. Contemporaneously, the concept of empire is politically valid, yet is not always used in the traditional sense.
For example, Japan is considered the world's sole remaining empire because of the continued presence of the Japanese Emperor in national politics.
Despite the semantic reference to imperial power, Japan is a de jure constitutional monarchy , with a homogeneous population of million people that is Characterizing some aspects of American foreign policy and international behavior as " American Empire " is controversial but not uncommon.
This characterization is controversial because of the strong tendency in American society to reject claims of American imperialism. The initial motivations for the inception of the United States eventually led to the development of this tendency, which has been perpetuated by the country-wide obsession with this national narrative.
The United States was formed because colonists did not like being under control of the British Empire.
Essentially, the United States was formed in an attempt to reject imperialism. This active rejection of imperialist status is not limited to high-ranking government officials, as it has been ingrained in American society throughout its entire history.
Stuart Creighton Miller posits that the public's sense of innocence about Realpolitik cf. American exceptionalism impairs popular recognition of US imperial conduct since it governed other countries via surrogates.
These surrogates were domestically-weak, right-wing governments that would collapse without US support.
Bush's Secretary of Defense, Donald Rumsfeld , said: We're not imperialistic; we never have been. Since the European Union began in as a west European trade bloc , it has established its own currency, the Euro , established discrete military forces, and exercised its limited hegemony in parts of eastern Europe and Asia.
The political scientist Jan Zielonka suggests that this behaviour is imperial because it coerces its neighbouring countries into adopting its European economic, legal, and political structures.
In his book review of Empire by Michael Hardt and Antonio Negri , Mehmet Akif Okur posits that since the 11 September terrorist attacks in the US, the international relations determining the world's balance of power political, economic, military have been altered.
These alterations include the intellectual political science trends that perceive the contemporary world's order via the re-territorrialisation of political space , the re-emergence of classical imperialist practices the "inside" vs.
These changes constitute the "Age of Nation Empires"; as imperial usage, nation-empire denotes the return of geopolitical power from global power blocs to regional power blocs i.
Nation-empire regionalism claims sovereignty over their respective regional political social, economic, ideologic , cultural, and military spheres.
The chart below shows a timeline of polities that have been called empires. My one requirement for this list is that the empire must have been ruled — for at least a majority of the time — by an emperor or king.
This excludes modern so-called empires such as the United States and Soviet Union. The entries here are listed roughly by influence and size.
At the height of its power 16th—17th century , the Ottoman Empire spanned three continents, controlling much of Southeastern Europe, Western Asia and North Africa.
It contained 29 provinces and numerous vassal states, some of which were later absorbed into the empire, while others were granted various types of autonomy during the course of centuries.
The empire was at the center of interactions between the Eastern and Western worlds for six centuries. With Constantinople as its capital city, and vast control of lands around the eastern Mediterranean during the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent ruled to , the Ottoman Empire was, in many respects, an Islamic successor to the Eastern Roman Byzantine Empire.
Become part of the empire of the future! The Umayyad Caliphate was the second of the four Islamic caliphates systems of governance , established after the death of Mohammed.
It was ruled by the Umayyad dynasty, whose name derives from Umayya ibn Abd Shams, the great-grandfather of the first Umayyad caliph.
Although the Umayyad family originally came from the city of Mecca, Damascus was the capital of their Caliphate.
Eventually, it would cover more than five million square miles, making it the largest empire the world had yet seen, and the fifth largest contiguous empire ever to exist.
The Umayyads established the largest Arab-Muslim state in history. From the time of Mohammed until , successive and contemporary caliphates were held by various dynasties — the last being the Ottoman Empire above.
They basically unified the whole of Central Asia which consisted of a lot of different cultures, kingdoms, empires and tribes.
It was the largest empire in ancient history. At the height of its power, the empire encompassed approximately 8 million km2. The empire was forged by Cyrus the Great, and spanned three continents: